Chronic kidney disease
Chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a condition in which the kidneys are no longer able to work efficiently and leads to progressive loss of renal function. In the initial phase occurs without symptoms and this is often overlooked until the later stages. In Italy it is estimated that the percentage of people affected is between 6 and 11% of the population.
Who does it affect
Those particularly prone to develop kidney disease are people with “high blood pressure (hypertension) is not properly treated, diabetes, obese people and, more generally, adults over 60. Nor should we underestimate the familiarity (or the presence in the family of cases of kidney disease) and abuse of anti-inflammatory drugs.
How does it manifest
Chronic kidney disease is initially asymptomatic patient is fine as long as renal function falls below 25%. The IRC is developed, in fact, from chronic kidney disease who do not heal, which often are established without causing any disorder that damages the kidneys and gradually, usually over years.
There are, however, signs that should not be underestimated and that, particularly if their onset is sudden, may indicate an advanced renal disease: high blood pressure, extreme fatigue and weakness, loss of appetite, pallor, insomnia, loss of appetite , nausea and vomiting, swollen legs, ankles, face and hands.
What are the risk factors
Hypertension is a major risk factor and, if not treated properly, can also cause kidney disease. Other factors are diabetes, obesity, prolonged use of drugs without medical supervision (especially the abuse of anti-inflammatory), the existence of cases of overt renal disease in advanced age family.
How to prevent it
You can counter the onset of kidney disease through a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition. It is important to ensure proper body hydration, avoid smoking and control of the main causes of the DSU (such as diabetes and hypertension).
It is then recommended to undergo some simple tests that can help to suspect the existence of a renal disease: control of blood pressure and blood glucose, urine tests and blood creatinine (serum creatinine).
What are the main consequences
The major consequences of chronic kidney disease renal failure are the aggravation of hypertension, uremia and anemia.
With the progression of renal failure, in fact, blood pressure tends to rise due to antithrombin production of substances that regulate and retention of water and salt, the kidneys are no longer capable of eliminating normally. Hypertension in turn aggravates the renal damage and cardiovascular causes injury.
In advanced stages, the impaired renal function due to the accumulation of nitrogenous substances in the blood and this can lead to uremia. When the amount of blood that is purified by creatinine (creatinine clearance) falls below 30 milliliters per minute can appear some symptoms: fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, attention disorders, drowsiness, dizziness, and edema. In severe cases, dialysis is necessary to do otherwise uremia leads to death.
Anemia is the consequence of chronic renal failure that most affects the quality of life of patients. It develops in the later stages of kidney disease due to decreased production of a hormone called eritropietina necessary to stimulate the maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Anemia causes so inadequate oxygenation of tissues and organs of the human body. The typical symptoms of anemia with CKD are weakness, easy fatigue, dizziness, fatigue, eye problems and muscle pain. The anemia of chronic kidney disease renal failure is a condition more manageable thanks to advances in medicine in recent years.
Creatinine: a waste product resulting from muscle proteins, is mainly filtered by the kidneys and its blood level is used as an indication of renal
Dialysis: The process of artificial blood clearance from the waste (toxins) metabolism normally excreted in the urine. In the final stage of renal failure, the kidney can no longer perform its function and purifying the blood must be purified with artificial techniques (dialysis).
Hemoglobin: A protein in red blood cells responsible for transporting oxygen to all tissues.
Erythropoietin: A hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates production of red blood cells.
Hypertension: OR “high blood pressure,” is to increase the pressure with which the blood circulates in the arteries, above 130/80 millimeters of mercury. It ‘s a very common disorder that can cause kidney damage over time. High blood pressure can also be a consequence of renal failure itself.